Published 30 June 2022
Industrialised, corporatised food systems contribute to some of the most urgent challenges facing the planet. These include climate change, the depletion of environmental resources, rising food insecurity, high rates of non-communicable diseases, and poor working conditions in the food and agricultural sectors. The dominant food system – and the policies, laws, and practices that govern it – has also marginalised, oppressed, and ignored the voices, perspectives, and participation of Indigenous Peoples, Black People and People of Colour. This occurs even at the highest levels: the recent United Nations Food Systems Summit has been criticised as privileging corporate, agro-industrial, and Global North interests at the expense of human rights, the Global South and Indigenous food systems.
In light of growing interest in Indigenous food sovereignty, anti-racism and decolonising the food system, The Charles Perkins Centre’s Food Governance Node will be hosting an event on Wednesday 27 July on the ‘Inclusion of Indigenous Peoples in Food Governance in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand’. Here, we speak to Dr Mark Lock, Senior Lecturer at the University of Technology Sydney, Research Fellow at Deakin University, and one of the event’s panellists.
Dr Belinda Reeve: Could you please tell us a bit about your background?
Dr Mark Lock: I’m from the Ngiyampaa mob and with ancestry from the First Fleet (on the maternal side) and from Latvia and England (on the paternal side) but grew up with ridgy-didge Koori experience in rural NSW, before moving to Newcastle 30 years ago. I study committees and governance because it was invisible people on secret committees who made decisions about Aboriginal people, without Aboriginal people. That’s from the experience of my Nan, a Stolen Generations survivor. She is also why I continue to do research on the participation of Aboriginal people in policymaking processes, such as food and nutrition policy. It’s also why I research cultural safety because Indigenous people are diminished, demeaned and disempowered through poor governance. I currently work as a Research Fellow with the Murnong Health Research Mob (at Deakin University, School of Health & Social Development, Faculty of Health), and I’m also Senior Lecturer at the School of Public Health, University of Technology Sydney.
Your current research focuses on the Commercial Determinants of Indigenous Health. Could you please explain this research lens to us?
Commercial activities influence our society in many ways. It can be advertisements on social media platforms, sponsorship of sporting teams, funding research activities, lobbying politicians, to bringing jobs and products to local communities. So, if business activities are a normal part of our society in many positive ways, then it also holds true that there are negative influences on health and wellbeing. However, it is only recently that Indigenous health policy makes specific mention of commercial determinants of health. In other words, governments have focused on behaviour change programs, health promotion activities, and legislation that influences public services to be health promoting, and ‘businesses and the market’ operate outside of healthy public policy. This means concepts such as health equity are not included in the governance of commercial activities.
It is inequitable that Indigenous peoples have the highest food prices in communities with lowest incomes and less access to education and employment opportunities – combined with low quality housing and health hardware. But put a mine in the ground and everything changes – fuel subsidies, extraordinary wages, low taxes, and incredible infrastructure to generate wealth for the nation, and massive profits and revenue for a few people. It’s in these very different comparisons (nutrition inequity and mining equity – pun intended) that shows the potential for commercial determinants of health.
“It is inequitable that Indigenous peoples have the highest food prices in communities with lowest incomes and less access to education and employment opportunities – combined with low quality housing and health hardware.”
You’ve also explored the themes arising in submissions to the Australian Government’s 2020 Inquiry into Food Pricing and Food Security in Remote Indigenous Communities. What were some of your findings?
I’ve analysed 83 submissions from different organisations. I’m thinking about how commercial activities influence food security. There’s some interesting themes coming out as cultural norms, such as the absence of a framework for commercial determinants of Indigenous health; that health equity is excluded from corporate governance; that Indigenous people (and cultural knowledge) are mostly excluded from participating at decision-making tables; and that there is an enduring norm of hardship expected for Indigenous people in rural and remote communities. However, the great things to see and build on are themes such as cultural resilience where Indigenous peoples use commercial activities in an innovative way, that many commercial activities benefit from the inclusion of cultural knowledge, and of course the theme of ‘collaboration nation’ where Indigenous communities proactively form partnerships – between communities and businesses – to leverage reforms at the local level.
“Commercial activities influence food security. There’s some interesting themes coming out as cultural norms, such as the absence of a framework for commercial determinants of Indigenous health; that health equity is excluded from corporate governance.”
The most illuminating aspect of the research is to make visible what is currently invisible. That’s the culture of commercial determinants, by which I mean to uncover the hidden pattern of values, norms and behaviours underlying the link between commercial activities and nutrition equity. Why is it normal for rural and remote Indigenous communities to suffer enduring nutrition hardship? How can the value system of Western monetary wealth be reconciled with Indigenous sovereignty? How can business behaviours towards equity be supported and rewarded? One thing is a clear theme, with this being the third inquiry on this topic, it’s time get on with actions that are aligned with a dedicated commercial determinants of health framework.
“Inclusive governance is more than a principal and deserves to be empirically investigated. I know that’s not a simple ‘one-page’ answer, but food policy and governance are complex and nuanced with many stakeholders vying for a profitable wedge into the system. Simple policy on the run will not work.”
The focus of this event is on the inclusion of Indigenous peoples in food policy and governance. What do you think truly inclusive food governance looks like?
I think about how Indigenous peoples can influence every ‘point and pathway’ of governance. So, I a) yarn with relevant Indigenous people from the beginning, b) map the governance system, c) identity every point and pathway where Indigenous people should influence the system, d) ethically research and gather knowledge, e) develop a system design where the process includes all stakeholders, f) build in evaluation, measurement, and monitoring, and g) close the loop by ensuring good ongoing governance with Indigenous communities.
Therefore, inclusive governance is more than a principal and deserves to be empirically investigated. I know that’s not a simple ‘one-page’ answer, but food policy and governance are complex and nuanced with many stakeholders vying for a profitable wedge into the system. Simple policy on the run will not work. Finally, thinking about my Nan and Stolen Generations as we come into NAIDOC Week 2022, I’d like to see the food and nutrition industry “Get Up! Stand Up! Show Up!” for nutrition equity with First Nations Australians.
To hear more from Dr Mark Lock, register for the panel discussion, ‘Inclusion of Indigenous Peoples in Food Governance in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand’.
Dr Mark J Lock is a Ngiyampaa First Nations Australian. He combines both cultural rigour and scientific rigour through a culturally safe research methodology. He has published on Aboriginal holistic health, participation in health policy, nutrition and food policy, and cultural safety in paediatric emergency departments, and cultural safety in research and policy. He is an ARC Discovery Indigenous Research Fellow (2013); Co-chair of the NSW Agency for Clinical Innovations Aboriginal Health Working Group on Patient Reported Outcome Measures; and Vice President of the Hunter Writers Centre. His advocacy – through Freedom of Information – resulted in the release of the Evaluation of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nutrition Plan, and in the release of the Scoping Study for an Australian National Nutrition Policy.
Dr Belinda Reeve is a Senior Lecturer at the University of Sydney Law School and one of the co-founders of the Charles Perkins Centre’s Food Governance Node, a platform for interdisciplinary research on the role of law, regulation, and policy in creating a healthy and sustainable food system. She is also the lead researcher on an ARC Discovery Project investigating the role of Australian local governments and communities in strengthening food system governance at the local level.